The objective of the course is for a student of the study programme in nursing to acquire basic knowledge in physiology, pathophysiology, clinical imaging, and the importance of osteoporosis (OP). After graduating from the course, students will be able to understand the risks of osteoporosis, know how to prevent, diagnose and treat it. Students will become acquainted with the diagnostics and therapy of other metabolic bone diseases: osteogenesis imperfecta, osteomalacia. Acquired knowledge should enable the student to gain a better understanding of physiological, pathophysiological and pathological processes in the body and to master the nursing care procedures which ensure long-term mobility and vitality even in the older age.

The course includes the acquisition of knowledge of bone structure – histology of cell structure and function, functional mechanisms of bones: physiology and pathophysiology: the mechanostat mechanism of bone regulation. “cell 's cross talking” as follows: 

  • Specify and explain the role of bone structure and functioning of bone units
  • Explain the structure and properties of bone minerals (hydroxyapatite, fluoroapatite) within the bone in relation to the mechanical and supportive function of the bone
  • Describe the bone unit 
  • Describe the role of osteclasts and osteoblasts 
  • Predict basic physical characteristics based on the bone structure and the possibility of disease occurrence
  • Indicate the main diseases and their differences.
  • Define risk factors for osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, Paget's disease of bone, osteomalacia, rachitis.
  • Have knowledge of methods of diagnostics, analyse QUS findings (bone ultrasound, densitometry, etc.) 
  • Perform anthropometric measurements and strength tests of the locomotive system.
  • Recognize symptoms associated with spine, hip and forearm fractures
  • Identify risk groups
  • Implement preventive measures to prevent bone loss
  • Define the role of calcium in bone preservation

Describe the action of vitamin D3 in bone metabolism

Obavezna literatura:

  1. Vrhovac B, Jakšić B, Reiner Ž, Vucelić B. Interna medicina. Zagreb: Naklada Ljevak; 2008.
  2. Ćurković B, Babić-Naglić Đ, Anić B, Grazio S, Vlak T, Hanih M. Preporuke HRD za prevenciju, dijagnostiku i liječenje postmenopauzalne osteoporoze. Hrvatsko reumatološko društvo Hrvatskog liječničkog zbora; 2017
  3. Sedmi hrvatski kongres o osteoporozi – Opatija,11-13.travnja 2013. Smjernice za dijagnostiku, prevenciju i liječenje osteoporoze (temeljene na EBM). MEDIX. 2013;104/105:68-73.


Dopunska literatura:

  1. Rosen CJ, Compston JE, Lian JB, ur. Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism. 7. izd. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell; 2008.

Upon completion of this course, students will be able to:

 1. explain the structure and function of bones; 

 2. describe the mechanism of signaling and regulation of bone remodeling, bone growth and development (hormones and interleukins, mechanostatic mechanism of bone remodeling); 

 3. explain the epidemiology, pathophysiology and diagnosis of osteoporosis; 

 4. recognize the clinical picture of osteoporosis and other metabolic bone diseases (osteogenesis imperfecta, Morbus Paget Ossium, OA, etc.); 

 5. explain the therapy and method of application in the treatment of OP; 

 6. describe non-drug treatments; 

 7. recognize secondary osteoporosis: GIO, CA, Chron, Colitis, Gerb, renal osteodystrophy; 

 8. interpret normal physiological and anatomical values.

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